A comprehensive approach to developing L2 speaking competence

Robbie Lee Sabnani, Willy A. Renandya

Abstract


Speaking is important to language learners. The ability to structure talk facilitates effective communication with fellow interlocutors. A strong spoken command positions them to participate actively in interactions with their teachers and peers to hone their academic mastery. This article presents a principled approach to improve the accuracy and fluency of learners’ utterances through the teaching speaking cycle (Goh & Burns, 2012). It comprises seven strategically sequenced stages to increase learners’ knowledge of language and discourse, enhance their core skills and heighten their awareness and use of communication strategies. Based on a methodological framework underpinned by cognitive, metacognitive and socio-affective domains, the model provides for rehearsal, task repetition and focused teaching to strengthen learners’ oral competence in a holistic manner. Complementing explicit instruction with contextualized practice develops learners’ introspective awareness of the elements and processes in speaking to gain greater autonomy over their progress.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Baker, A. (2014). Exploring teachers' knowledge of second language pronunciation techniques: Teachers’ cognitions, observed classroom practices, and student perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 48(1): 136-163.

Becker, C. & Roos, J. (2016). An approach to creative speaking activities in the young learners’ classroom. Educational Inquiry, 7(1): 9-26.

Burns, A. & Joyce, H. (1997). Focus on Speaking. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Burns, A., Joyce, H., & Gollin, S. (1996). I See What You Mean: Using Spoken Discourse in the Classroom: A Handbook for Teachers. Sydney: National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research.

Bygate, M. (1998). Theoretical perspectives on speaking. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 18, 20-42.

Goh, C., & Burns, A. (2012). Teaching speaking: A holistic approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Goh, C., Zhang, L., Ng, C.H., & Koh, G. K. (2005). Knowledge, beliefs and syllabus implementation: A study of English language teachers in Singapore. Singapore: Graduate Programmes and Research Office. Nanyang Technological University.

Littlewood, W. T. (1992). Teaching oral communication: A methodological framework. Oxford: Blackwell.

Mercer, N., & Littleton, K. (2007). Dialogue and the development of children’s thinking: A socio-cultural approach. London: Routledge

Nakatani, Y., & Goh, C. (2007). A review of oral communication strategies: Focus on interactionist and psycholinguistic perspectives. In A. D. Cohen and E. Macaro (eds.) Language Learner Strategies: Thirty Years of Research and Practice, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 207-227.

Thornbury, S. (2005). How to teach speaking. Harlow, England: Longman.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.33474/eltar-j.v1i1.4769

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 ELTAR-J (English Language Teaching and Research Journal)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

English Language Teaching and Research Journal (ELTAR-J) indexed by