Personal resources and turnover intention among private sector employees: Does work engagement still matter?


  • Ratna Tri Hardaningtyas Department of Management, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Islam Malang, Malang



Work Engagement, Self-Efficacy, Organizational-Based Self-Esteem, Optimism, Turnover Intention


Work engagement has emerged as a core element of talent management to acquire and retain high-performing employees in the labor market and a potential bright spot for business success. Due to the aforementioned positive influences and benefits of improving employees' work engagement, many organizations put more effort towards enhancing and maintaining levels of work engagement as their top priority for an effective human resource system. This study aimed to investigate the mediating effects of employees' work engagement in the relationships between their personal resources (self-efficacy, organizationalbased self-esteem, and optimism) and turnover intention. A total of 119 survey responses collected by convenience sampling and analyzed by using structural equation modeling (SEM). This study concluded that there is a positive relationship between self-efficacy, organizationalbased self-esteem, optimism, and work engagement. The mediation role of work engagement in the relationship between self-efficacy, organizational-based self-esteem, optimism, and turnover intention proves significantly in this study. Interestingly, this study found that there is a positive relationship of self-efficacy on turnover intention which means that the higher level of self-efficacy does not indicate the lower turnover intention. Employees with a high level of self-efficacy believe that they are giving too much to their organization Therefore, they eventually negotiated more for higher salaries while at the same time seeing more alternative jobs/organizations offers in case they are not appreciated enough for what they do for organizations.


Agarwal, U. A., Datta, S., Blakeâ€Beard, S., & Bhargava, S. (2012). Linking LMX, innovative work behaviour and turnover intentions. Career Development International, 17(3), 208–230.

Bakker, A. B., & Bal, M. P. (2010). Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 189–206.

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209–223.

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Sanz-Vergel, A. I. (2014). Burnout and work engagement: the JD–R approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 389–411.

Bhatnagar, J. (2012). Management of innovation: role of psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention in the Indian context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(5), 928–951.

Bowling, N. A., Eschleman, K. J., Wang, Q., Kirkendall, C., & Alarcon, G. (2010). A meta-analysis of the predictors and consequences of organization-based self-esteem. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3), 601–626.

Carmeli, A., & Weisberg, J. (2006). Exploring turnover intentions among three professional groups of employees. Human Resource Development International, 9(2), 191–206.

Chang, H.-Y., Friesner, D., Chu, T.-L., Huang, T.-L., Liao, Y.-N., & Teng, C.-I. (2018). The impact of burnout on self-efficacy, outcome expectations, career interest and nurse turnover. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(11), 2555–2565.

Choi, J. H., & Kang, H. A. (2012). Job stress, personal resources, burnout, and work engagement in child counselors. Korean Journal of Childcare and Education, 8(5), 231–252.

Colarelli, S. M. (1982). Methods of communication and job information, reactions to the job, and job survival: A field experiment (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Demerouti, E., & Cropanzano, R. (2010). From thought to action: Employee work engagement and job performance. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research (pp. 147–163). New York: Psychology Press.

Egan, T. M., Yang, B., & Bartlett, K. R. (2004). The effects of organizational learning culture and job satisfaction on motivation to transfer learning and turnover intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(3), 279–301.

Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 43(6), 495–513.

Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2010). A meta-analysis of work engagement: Relationships with burnout, demands, resources, and consequences. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research (pp. 102–117). New York: Psychology Press.

Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Wheeler, A. R. (2008). The relative roles of engagement and embeddedness in predicting job performance and intention to leave. Work & Stress, 22(3), 242–256.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513–524.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and Psychological Resources and Adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307–324.

Hobfoll, S. E., Johnson, R. J., Ennis, N., & Jackson, A. P. (2003). Resource loss, resource gain, and emotional outcomes among inner city women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 632–643.

Hughes, J. C., & Rog, E. (2008). Talent management: A strategy for improving employee recruitment, retention and engagement within hospitality organizations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(7), 743–757.

Judeh, M., & Abou-Moghli, A. A. (2019). Transformational leadership and employee intent to stay: mediating effect of employee self-efficacy. International Journal Of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(12), 301–314.

Kim, W. (2017). Examining mediation effects of work engagement among job resources, job performance, and turnover intention. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 29(4), 407–425.

Kim, W., Kolb, J. A., & Kim, T. (2013). The relationship between work engagement and performance. Human Resource Development Review, 12(3), 248–276.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 3rd ed. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 3rd ed. New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Lei, P.-W., & Wu, Q. (2007). Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling: Issues and Practical Considerations. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 26(3), 33–43.

Lin, N., Jang, J., & Roberts, K. R. (2018). Are employees with higher organization-based self-esteem less likely to quit? A moderated mediation model. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 73, 116–124.

Luthans, F., & Peterson, S. J. (2002). Employee engagement and manager selfâ€efficacy. Journal of Management Development, 21(5), 376–387.

Luthans, F., Zhu, W., & Avolio, B. J. (2006). The impact of efficacy on work attitudes across cultures. Journal of World Business, 41(2), 121–132.

Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., & Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of work engagement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(1), 149–171.

Milam, L. A., Cohen, G. L., Mueller, C., & Salles, A. (2019). The relationship between self-efficacy and well-being among surgical residents. Journal of Surgical Education, 76(2), 321–328.

Mobley, W. H., Griffeth, R. W., Hand, H. H., & Meglino, B. M. (1979). Review and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 493–522.

Morrell, K., Loan-Clarke, J., & Wilkinson, A. (2001). Unweaving leaving: The use of models in the management of employee turnover. International Journal of Management Reviews, 3(3), 219–244.

Picton, C., Kahu, E. R., & Nelson, K. (2018). ‘Hardworking, determined and happy’: first-year students’ understanding and experience of success. Higher Education Research & Development, 37(6), 1260–1273.

Pierce, J. L., & Gardner, D. G. (2004). Self-esteem within the work and organizational context: a review of the organization-based self-esteem literature. Journal of Management, 30(5), 591–622.

Pradesa, H. A., Dawud, J., & Affandi, M. N. (2019). Mediating role of affective commitment in the effect of ethical work climate on felt obligation among public officers. JEMA: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Akuntansi Dan Manajemen, 16(2), 133–146.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.

Ryu, E., West, S. G., & Sousa, K. H. (2009). Mediation and moderation: testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44(2), 213–232.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.

Salanova, M., Schaufeli, W. B., Xanthopoulou, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). The gain spiral of resources and work engagement: Sustaining a positive worklife. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research (pp. 118–131). New York: Psychology Press.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Defining and measuring work engagement: Bringing clarity to the concept. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research (pp. 10–24). New York, NY, US: Psychology Press.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(7), 893–917.

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-romá, V., & Bakker, A. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063–1078.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and psychological well-being. In E. C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism & pessimism: Implications for theory, research, and practice. (pp. 189–216). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In M. Johnston, S. C. Wright, & J. Weinman (Eds.), Measures in Health Psychology: A User’s Portfolio (pp. 35–37). Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.

Schyns, B., Torka, N., & Gössling, T. (2007). Turnover intention and preparedness for change. Career Development International, 12(7), 660–679.

Shahpouri, S., Namdari, K., & Abedi, A. (2016). Mediating role of work engagement in the relationship between job resources and personal resources with turnover intention among female nurses. Applied Nursing Research, 30, 216–221.

Shuck, B., Reio, T. G., & Rocco, T. S. (2011). Employee engagement: An examination of antecedent and outcome variables. Human Resource Development International.

Tuten, T. L., & Neidermeyer, P. E. (2004). Performance, satisfaction and turnover in call centers. Journal of Business Research, 57(1), 26–34.

Wefald, A. J., Reichard, R. J., & Serrano, S. A. (2011). Fitting engagement into a nomological network: The relationship of engagement to leadership and personality. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(4), 522–537.

Weigl, M., Hornung, S., Parker, S. K., Petru, R., Glaser, J., & Angerer, P. (2010). Work engagement accumulation of task, social, personal resources: A three-wave structural equation model. Journal of Vocational Behavior.

Winterton, J. (2004). A conceptual model of labour turnover and retention. Human Resource Development International, 7(3), 371–390.

Wollard, K. K., & Shuck, B. (2011). Antecedents to employee engagement. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 429–446.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(2), 121–141.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183–200.

Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: the influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107–128.




How to Cite

Hardaningtyas, R. T. (2020). Personal resources and turnover intention among private sector employees: Does work engagement still matter?. JEMA: Jurnal Ilmiah Bidang Akuntansi Dan Manajemen, 17(1), 1–18.