Factors of contraban cigarettes smuggling in Malaysia

Main Article Content

Kamalashan Vijayan
Saralah Devi Mariamdaran Chethiyar
Venothiney Dewi Muniandy


The Royal Malaysian Customs Department takes seriously the issue related to cigarette smuggling activities which due to the study conducted put the smuggled cigarette market and the sale of smuggled cigarettes in this country is the largest in the world. This study aims to examine the issues related to cigarette smuggling in Malaysia. The research methodology is to use the library research method. The findings of the study are based on previous studies. This study focuses on the factors of smuggling in Malaysia. The results of the study can list the main factors that contribute to the widespread smuggling of cigarettes in Malaysia. The findings of this study on the factor of cigarette smuggling can be used as a guide to further improve control and enforcement at the country's entrances. The implementation of research rpelated to the type and form of punishment that can be imposed on those convicted of smuggling prohibited goods, especially contraband cigarettes. The second is the formation of a police community consisting of the general public.

Article Details



Adnan, A. S. (2020). Pasaran rokok seludup Malaysia terbesar di dunia. BH Online. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2020/10/743494/pasaran-rokok-seludup-malaysia-terbesar-di-dunia

Antonopoulos, G. (2006). Cigarette Smuggling: A Case Study of a Smuggling Network in Greece. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 14(3), 239–255. https://doi.org/10.1163/157181706778526504

Arikunto, S. (2011). Prosedur penelitian : suatu pendekatan praktik (Ed. Rev. V). Rineka Cipta.

Arumugam, T. (2017). Customs Dept wages all-out war against illicit trade. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/exclusive/2017/05/238994/customs-dept-wages-all-out-war-against-illicit-trade

Bate, R. (2016). Smoking Out Illicit Trade: How Some Policies Intended to Limit Smoking Drive Illegal Trade. https://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Smoking-out-illicit-trade.pdf

Berita Harian. (2019). 20,000 mati akibat rokok setiap tahun. BH Online. https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2019/11/631169/20000-mati-akibat-rokok-setiap-tahun

Bruns, B., Miggelbrink, J., & Müller, K. (2011). Smuggling and smallâ€scale trade as part of informal economic practices: Empirical findings from the Eastern external EU border. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 31(11), 664–680. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443331111177869

Changy, F. de. (2012). Hong Kong police target Pearl River triads. The Guardian for 2000 Years. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/aug/28/hong-kong-police-target-triads

Collins, S. (2015). Authorities fume: 25% of cigarettes smuggled into Republic. The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/authorities-fume-25-of-cigarettes-smuggled-into-republic-1.2297655

Ering, S. O. (2011). Trans-border Crime and Its Socio-economic Impact on Developing Economies. Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, 2(2), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/09766634.2011.11885550

Ezzy, D. (2002). Qualitative Analysis (1st ed.). Routledge.

Financial Action Task Force. (2019). ILLICIT Cigarettes Study (ICS) in Malaysia 2018 (Annualised) Report. http://www.batmalaysia.com/group/sites/bat_ap6d2l.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DOALBJUB/$FILE/medMDBEUCGZ.pdf?openelement

Freeman, B., & Chapman, S. (2010). British American tobacco on facebook: Undermining article 13 of the global World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Tobacco Control, 19(3), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2009.032847

Gruber, J., Sen, A., & Stabile, M. (2002). Estimating Price Elasticities When There is Smuggling: The Sensitivity of Smoking to Price in Canada [Cambridge]. In NBER Working Paper Series. https://www.nber.org/system/files/working_papers/w8962/w8962.pdf

Hairom, N. (2020). Rokok seludup dikhuatiri monopoli pasaran. Sinar Harian. https://www.sinarharian.com.my/article/98498/BERITA/Nasional/Rokok-seludup-dikhuatiri-monopoli-pasaran

Hsia, J. T. G., & Saat, G. (2020). Factors of continuity of Goods Smuggling at the Border of Malaysia Sarawak (Lubok Antu) and Indonesia Kalimantan Barat (Badau). Akademika, 90(1), 49–62. https://doi.org/10.17576/akad-2020-9001-05 Faktor

Joossens, L., & Raw, M. (2000). How can cigarette smuggling be reduced? BMJ, 321, 947–950. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.321.7266.947

Masron, T. A., Amir, A., & Ibrahim, H. (2011). Underground Economy in Malaysia: Evidence from Smuggling Activities in Penang. International Journal of Current Research, 3(5), 107–110. http://journalcra.com/article/underground-economy-malaysia-evidence-smuggling-activities-penang

McLaughlin, P. (2007). Contraband cigarettes becoming a national norm. Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), 176(11), 1567–1568. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.070562

Meijer, P. C., Verloop, N., & Beijaard, D. (2002). Multi-Method Triangulation in a Qualitative Study on Teachers’ Practical Knowledge: An Attempt to Increase Internal Validity. Quality and Quantity, 36(2), 145–167. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014984232147

Merriman, D. (2013). Understand, measure, and combat tobacco smuggling (A. Yurekli & J. de Beyer (eds.); Issue 202). Word Bank Economics of Tobacco Toolkit. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/01/18136691/understand-measure-combat-tobacco-smuggling

MyMetro. (2018). Rokok seludup mudah. https://www.hmetro.com.my/utama/2018/04/328853/rokok-seludup-mudah

O’Halloran, M. (2013). Fines for cigarette smuggling ‘derisory’, says McGrath. The Irish Times. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/oireachtas/fines-for-cigarette-smuggling-derisory-says-mcgrath-1.1618338?mode=sample&auth-failed=1&pw-origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.irishtimes.com%2Fnews%2Fpolitics%2Foireachtas%2Ffines-for-cigarette-smuggling-derisory-says-mcgrath-1.1618338

Rejab, I., & Zain, Z. (2006). The Modus Operandi of Cigarette Smuggling In Malaysia. https://seatca.org/dmdocuments/5_the_modus_operandi_of_cigarette_smuggling_in_malaysia.pdf

Sadeghi, M., Ghasemi, F., Ranjkesh, R., & Zandinasab, M. (2014). Smuggling of Goods and its Relationship with Socioeconomic Characteristics of Border Areas (Case Study: Minab City of Iran). Journal of Life Science and Biomedicine, 4(2), 97–102.

Satar, D. S. A. (2020). Integriti hilang dek rasuah. MyMetro.

Vijayan, K., & Chethiyar, S. D. M. (2020). Study on the phenomenon of gratitude. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 6(3), 09–17. https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu16.2016.306